Following a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle can be a decision made for human reasons, entirely understandable given the cruelty involved in modern livestock operations. But it also means having to compensate for the multiple deficiencies of this lifestyle. No free-living population throughout history has adhered to a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle until recently, thanks to a handful of modern provenance. There are obviously people who argue otherwise, citing studies that have suggested that a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle is superior with less cancer, less cardiovascular disease, and a longer life-span. First of all, the bulk of data do not report such findings. Beyond the flaws inherent in epidemiological studies, such studies show no difference in mortality rates between meat consumers and non meat consumers. With a 2.5 million year heritage of consuming animal products programmed into human anatomy and physiology, choosing to avoid all animal products leads to nutritional deficiencies. This can cause health complications, which do not necessarily result in death or other major catastrophes. In particular some raw vegans that is people who consume no animal products and select Foods uncooked or cooked, need to address deficiencies of fat soluble vitamins, or else experience gingivitis, tooth decay, tooth loss, osteoporosis, skin rashes, depression, and anxiety. Because many vegans and vegetarians are also over early line on greens, the nutritional deficiencies of grain consumption, especially iron, zinc, magnesium, and vitamin B12 are greater. Here are the most important nutritional deficiencies that must be addressed in these lifestyles. Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 is especially problematic for vegans and vegetarians since it is completely absent from plant foods and thereby obtainable only from animal-based foods, and it must therefore be supplemented. Deficiency is present in up to 90% of Wiggins, with health implications that include megaloblastic anemia neurological impairment and psychiatric difficulties. Iron Iron is present only as the list well absorbed form in plant products, compared to the more efficiently absorbed form in animal products, resulting in lower body iron stores in vegans and vegetarians. If phytate containing grains are part of the picture, the prospects for iron absorption are even worse, making the correction of iron deficiency more difficult, as well. I didn’t supplementation is a frequent necessity in people who shun animal products, even after wheat or grain elimination. Omega-3 fatty acids Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, abnormal heart rhythms and sudden cardiac death, depression, and dementia. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, is nearly zero in vegans and vegetarians, given the absence of fish, shellfish, and animal organs and meat in their diets. Likewise, intake of line linolenic acid, another omega-3 fatty acid, is lower. A small quantity of line linolenic acid is converted to DHA, so consuming more linolenic acid rich foods such as flaxseed, Chia, and walnuts helps a bit with raising DHA levels, raising them to that of moderate deficiency. Vitamin D vitamin D deficiency is an issue for everybody, not just vegans or vegetarians, people who avoid animal products have 75% less dietary intake this puts them at risk of the most severe degree of deficiency, given the avoidance of eggs, liver and seafood that contain modest quantities of vitamin D that augments the quantity activated by sun exposure of the skin Vitamin K2 the necessity of this less well-known form of vitamin K, to be distinguished from the K1 found in green vegetables has only being recognized recently. While K2 calcium metabolism, with deficiency contributing to loss of bone calcium leading to osteoporosis, hip and other fractions, and abnormal deposition of calcium in arteries, part of the atherosclerotic process leading to heart attacks. While vegan and vegetarian lifestyle is unlikely to affect your likelihood of death from cancer or cardiovascular disease, a lifestyle without animal products requires specific efforts to address nutritional deficiencies that develop and impair Health to but not result in death. Departing from the lifestyle programmed into human genetics is a sacrifice best made for humane reasons. it is on thin ice as a lifestyle or update for health reasons though.